Numbers in a range
In ranges of numbers, such as time periods or page ranges, the numbers can be separated by a hyphen or an en dash (choose one or the other and use it consistently) or by the word to. For more information about en dashes, see “Dashes.”
Guidelines for en dashes and hyphens:
- Use an en dash (or a hyphen) without a space on either side for a range of numbers: 8–10 people (en dash), 8-10 people (hyphen).
- If you precede the range with the word from, don’t use an en dash or a hyphen to separate the numbers—use the word to instead: from 8 to 10 people.
Join us at the Open House July 6–7. Hours: 10 a.m.–5 p.m. (En dashes)
Join us at the Open House July 6-7. Hours: 10 a.m.-5 p.m. (Hyphens)
This offer is valid from July 1 to July 31, 2010. (Use “to” with “from”)
- Use an en dash (or a hyphen) for scores or votes as well. The en dash in the following constructions stands for to just as it does in a range.
Greece takes the title in a 2–1 upset over Spain. (En dash)
Greece takes the title in a 2-1 upset over Spain. (Hyphen)
Yeas outnumber nays 10–6. (En dash)
Yeas outnumber nays 10-6. (Hyphen)
For an open range of numbers, such as a date range with no ending date, use an em dash (also simply called a dash). For an em dash, you can use two hyphens (no coding necessary) or code an em dash character. To learn how to code an em dash, see “Special Characters.”
Barack Obama (1961—) was elected the 44th president of the United States. (Formatted em dash)
Barack Obama (1961--) was elected the 44th president of the United States. (Double-hyphen dash)